Sunday, September 2, 2012

Emeline Agnew photos 1-40

Fermentation:  The chemical breakdown of a substance by yeasts, bacteria, and other microorganisms. In this case, it is conversion of carbohydrates to alcohol using yeast bacteria. This is an example of fermentation because the fruit (carbohydrates) contain sugar which is eaten when added to the yeast bacteria, resulting in alcohol and carbon dioxide. (which is why it bubbles)

Gymnosperm Cones: Gymnosperms are a group of seed producing plants such as conifers. These plants have exposed seeds without ovaries, and usually develop on the surface of leaves or in a cone. This pine cone is an example of a gymnosperm cone.

Gymnosperm Leaf: Gymnosperms, specifically the conifer shown here, are cone-bearing plants with vascular tissue. Conifers like this one are characterized by long, needle-like leaves, although this is not a trait of all gymnosperms.

Predation: The preying of one animal on others. This is an example of predation because, although it’s hard to see, there’s a fly stuck in the spider web. In this case, the spider is preying on the fly.

Bilateral Symmetry: Can be divided into symmetrical halves. This lead is an example of bilateral symmetry because each side is identical, making the leaf symmetrical.

Connective tissue: An animal tissue developed from the embryonic mesoderm that supports organs, fills the spaces between them, and forms tendons and ligaments. My skin is an example of connective tissue, which contains collagen fibers.

Endotherm: An animal can generate its own heat, in others words a warm blooded animal. A cat is an example of an endotherm, for it is not dependent on external sources of body heat.

Adaptation of an Animal: The way a species changes to accommodate to a different environment. This is an example of an adaptation because my cat has retractable claws, whereas cheetahs only have partially retractable claws in order to give them more traction while running.

Heterotroph: An organism which gets its nutrients from complex organic substances. My sister is an example of a heterotroph; she can not acquire nutrients from inorganic substances like carbon dioxide.

Flower Ovaries: In flowering plants, ovaries is the part of the female reproductive organ that contains the seeds. Plums are an example of ovary because their purpose is to protect their seeds as well as to help disperse them.

Dominant vs. Recessive Phenotype: A dominant phenotype comes from a genotype with a dominant allele, while the recessive phenotype has a genotype with a recessive allele. Because of this, dominant phenotypes are more common. This is an example of a dominant phenotype (brown hair) compared to a recessive phenotype (blonde hair).

Anther and Filament of Stamen: The stamen is the pollen producing organ of a flower, which consists of the anther and filament. The filament is basically a stalk and the anthers are attached to it. This pumpkin flower is an example because there is a stamen in the center.

Modified Stem: A specialized or transformed stem, such as the stem of this rose. It has thorns to prevent animals from eating it.

Phloem: Vascular tissue in plants that transports sugars and metabolic products down from the leaves. There is phloem in the trunk of this tree.

Xylem: Vascular tissue in plants that transports water and dissolved nutrients up from the roots. There is xylem in the stem shown.

Radial Symmetry: Symmetry around a central axis, such as this lemon. Instead of having symmetrical halves it has an axis in the center.

Amniotic Egg: Eggs with a water resistant amniotic membrane. Chickens lay amniotic eggs, such as the one shown here.

Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship in which one side benefits while the other isn’t really affected. The relationship between the tree and moss is an example of commensalism because the moss gets more light and nutrients while the tree is neither harmed nor helped.

Lichen: An organism composed of a fungus in symbiotic union with algae. An example of a lichen is moss.

Pollen: A fine powder which produces male gametes, in other words, sperm cells. This pumpkin flower has pollen on its stamen.

Frond: The leaf of a fern, palm, or similar plant. This is an example of the frond of a fern.

Cuticle Layer of a Plant: Protective waxy covering that is produced by epidermal cells of leaves. The layer is usually thicker on top of the leave, as shown in the photo. This leaf has a cuticle layer.

Seed Dispersal (wind): How seeds are moved or transported from the parent plant. In this example, the seeds were blown away by the wind, and clustered on this bench.

Ectotherm: Animals who depend on external sources of body heat, or cold blooded animals. Insects fit this description, making them ectotherms.
Autotroph: An organism that can form nutritional substances from inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. In other words, they can make their own food. Plants photosynthesize using carbon dioxide and water, so plants are autotrophs.

Vestigial Structure: Characteristics of organisms that have seemingly lost most of their original function, and now have no use. An example of a vestigial structure is the Plica Luminaris, or the piece of skin that covers the outward corner of your eyeball. It is thought to once serve the purpose of a third eyelid, many animals still have functioning nictitating membranes (third eyelids).

Asexual Reproduction: Reproduction in which offspring arise from a single parent, only inheriting the genes of that parent. Therefore the offspring are genetic copies, or clones. Dandelions asexually reproduce even though they have stamen. This makes their stamen a vestigial structure.

Canbium: Cellular plant tissue in which xylem/phloem/cork grows by division. This results in secondary tissues. This stump has a layer of canbium.

Population: A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place. An example of this is the same species of tree growing in my yard.

Homologous Structures: A characteristic that organisms have in common, which is due to having a common ancestor. For example, the human’s relationship of bones in the forelimb is similar to a cat, dog, whale, bat, and bird.

Mycorrhizae: A fungus that grows with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic relationship, such as a mushroom at the base of a tree.

Niche: The particular role of an organism in its environment. This rose photosynthesizes, providing oxygen.

Parasitism: A relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed. The ivy on this tree weighs it down and can break off bark, so only the ivy is benefitting from the relationship.

Genetic Variation Within a Population: Variation in alleles of genes within a population. Genetic variation is important because it allows for natural selection, therefore helping species to evolve. My cat is an example of genetic variation because her siblings had different coat colors/eye colors, therefore having different phenotypes.

Endosperm: A part of a seed which stores food for the plant embryo. There is endosperm inside of the tomato seeds.

Long Day Plant: A plant that only flowers after being exposed to light for long periods of time. Lettuce grows under these conditions; it is an example of a long day plant.

Genetically Modified Organism: An organism whose genetics have been altered, such as rice. It has been engineered for faster growth and production of more nutrients.

ATP: ATP, or
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate, transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. This cat is eating food to get energy.

Homeostasis: A system that regulates its internal environment, maintaining consistent properties like temperature. Endotherms such as my sister use homeostasis to generate heat.

Modified Leaf: A leaf modified for a certain situation, one with functions other than photosynthesize. This leaf is thorny and prickly to discourage animals from eating it.

1 comment:

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